Refractive conditions are listed below:
A common condition in which near objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurred. Myopia can occur at any age.
Distant objects are easier to see than near objects. The extra effort required to see clearly at close range can cause blur, fatigue, muscle tension, discomfort and headaches.
Either the cornea and/or the lens inside the eye is slightly irregular or cylindrical in shape, resulting in vision being blurred or distorted at all distances.
A natural effect of aging, usually occurring after the age of 40, in which the ability to focus on close objects decreases over time. It can cause headaches, blurred vision, tired eyes and the need for more light.
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Glaucoma refers to a family of diseases that damage the optic nerve and is one of the leading causes of blindness in Canada. It is a progressive disease that most frequently occurs in individuals over the age of 40, with the risk of the disease increasing with age. There is also a greater risk of developing glaucoma for people with diabetes, high blood pressure, a history of eye injuries or a family history of glaucoma.
When the normally clear lens within your eye becomes cloudy and opaque, it is called a cataract. Cataracts vary from extremely small areas of cloudiness to large opaque areas that cause a noticeable blurring of your vision. Cataracts are a function of aging and are most often found in people over the age of 60, although they are occasionally found in younger people, including newborns. If a child is born with a cataract, it is referred to as a congenital cataract.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula – the central most part of the retina, which is the inner layer at the back of the eye responsible for detailed central vision. The macula is used for reading, driving and recognizing people’s faces. Macular degeneration causes the center of your vision to blur or distort while the side or peripheral vision remains unaffected. It is generally related to the aging process, and is the leading cause of blindness in North America in adults over the age of 55. While there is no cure, early detection and preventative measure can delay or reduce vision loss.
There are 2 types of AMD; dry and wet, with the dry form being more common. It is also the milder form, where there is a gradual degeneration of the central retinal tissues that make up the macula and symptoms generally develop slowly over time. The wet form is a sudden leakage, or bleeding from weak blood vessels under the macula and symptoms progress rapidly. Wet AMD accounts for approximately 10% of all cases, but the dry form can develop into the wet form over time.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when there is a weakening or swelling of the tiny blood vessels inside your eye, resulting in blood leakage, the growth of new blood vessels and other changes. If diabetic retinopathy is left untreated, blindness can result. Diabetic retinopathy can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.